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Sunday, 17 May 2015

Schema - a valuable study aid

A scheme is a helping medium which people use to retrieve information and give personal meaning to it.Schemas enable us to quickly and effortlessly make sense of behaviours and patterns. Only in unexpected or specially important situations do cognitive knowledge, rather than schemata, lead to a more effective course of action.

 Schemata are part of the implied memory, brought to the fore in particular situations, determined by recognition based on selection/filtering of incoming information, whose meaning, storage and rating are classed as new knowledge. 
 In addition, they fill in information gaps and determine how ambigious stimuli should be interpreted. Therefore, schemas affect how people perceive and process information as well as the consequence of the actions as influenced by the gain of such information. When reality becomes too starkingly different from one's schema, the difference is only noticed when there is no way it could be overlooked.
Basic work on schema research startedwith Barlett (1932) and Markus (1977).
Schema was technically described as a mental knowledge structure which contains information about a particular object or concept in abstract, generalised form. Schemas should not be taken as a part or region of memory, but rather as an illustration on how information is learned and processing thereof can be used according to one's needs.

Tuesday, 12 May 2015

Sarbanes-Oxley Act

The 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act is a United States federal law created in response to the financial scandals of companies such as Worldcom and Enron in order to improve reliability of auditing done on them in the open capital market. This law aims at restoring investors' confidence in the accuracy and reliability of financial data released by companies. The law appies to both domestic and foreign companies (and subsidiaries thereof) whose securities are traded on US exchanges.