Html/Javascript widget

Sunday, 12 November 2017

TCL commands

Transaction Control Language(TCL) commands manage transactions in database, usually the changes rbought about by DML statements (update, delete, insert).

Commit - used to permanently save any transaction into the database.

Rollback - undoes all changes, returning to the last committed stage. It can also be used in conjunction with the savepoint command when regression to an earlier state is desirable if savepoints were used rather than commit.

Savepoint - temporarily saves a transaction, thus allowing for a rollback operation to reverse back to this saved state. Savepoint is the only TCL command that needs to be named in order to be identified by a rollback operation.

The Weasel War Dance

In colloquial language, the weasel war dance is a set of moves done by a ferret to indicate playful behaviour. It consists of a frenzied series of hops sideways and backwards, often accompanied by an arched back, and a frizzed-out tail. Ferrets exhibit a pointed lack of spatial awareness when in this state,  often bumping into with or fall over objects and furniture.  The dance includes a clucking vocalization, known as "dooking". 

Tuesday, 7 November 2017

Database Tuning

Database tuning is the process of fine tuning either the parameters of a database installation or the influencing properties of a db application in order to improve performance. It's often recommended with huge database systems due to the  complexity and amount of data to be handled.

Tuning is best done by highly specialised professionals even though it's a costly process with hardly noticeable results. A more cost-effective solution with similar effects can be achieved by hardware implementation. This restricts the need for tuning to a few areas, e.g.: high-end applications. Another option includes the optimisation of the data model by normalising its tables e.g.: using atomic fields and eliminating transitive dependencies.

Monday, 2 October 2017

critical path method (CPM)

The critical path method (CPM) is a progressive project management technique to separate critical and non-critical tasks in order to avoid bottlenecks and missed deadlines due to lack of priorisation. It's best suited for projects with a diverse range of activities in a way that enables their solving in an ordered manner. ideally, a flowchart is used for displaying how the tasks relate to each other (e.g.: how the output of an activity is the input of a subsequent process). It's also tops to determine beforehand the expected completion time for each task.

An activities model designed for project management, common elements of this model include time for the completion of each activity, the dependencies therein, milestones and deliverables. It makes use of the presentation capabilities of an operation flowchart, the outcomes pictured as knots while the accompanying relationships are represented by arrows. For this model to make sense, all individual project operations should be plotted with their respective durations.
Using the dynamics of the operation-duration relationships, CPM calculates the longest path of planned activities to logical end points or to the end of the project, and the earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without delaying the whole project, as a means of providing a safe margin for work within a given deadline. This procedure distinguishes activities between "critical" and which have "total float", meaning, allowed some delay without compromising the project overall. This network of activities and their matching duration defines the shortest possible time to carry a project through to completion, with total float being unused time within the critical path.

Monday, 11 September 2017

Object-oriented analysis

Object–Oriented Analysis means gathering software requirements according and identifying the elements of the problem domain. The requirements and domain problem are created with an object model in mind, which ultimately guides the whole process through to completion.

Although the object-oriented approach started as a programming methodology since 1960 with Simula, it wasn't until later that this became a major software design paradigm with Xerox Park and an published article by Grady Booch in 1980 that emphasised the features of an object-oriented mindset for software developers.
Codd eventually expanded upon this study to create what is known today as object-oriented methods.


In object-oriented approach, requirements are based on objects that the system interacts with. Grady Booch has defined OOA as a method for identifying requirements from the perspective of the classes and objects found in the vocabulary of the problem domain.

The primary tasks in object-oriented analysis are:

-Identifying objects;
-Organising them through some standard model diagram;
-Defining their attributes and methods;
-describing they interact with user, external agents and each other

In OOD, concepts in the analysis model are technology−independent so they can modelled into classes, constraints and interfaces to provide a suitable solution to the domain problem. The implementation includes restructuring of the class its associations.
Grady Booch has defined object-oriented design as "a method of design encompassing the process of object-oriented decomposition and a notation for depicting both logical and physical as well as static and dynamic models of the system under design".
Object-oriented programming uses these advantages to achieve great gains suc has modularity and reusability.

According to Grady Booch "object–oriented programming is a method of implementation in which programs are organized as cooperative collections of objects, each of which represents an instance of some class, and whose classes are all members of a hierarchy of classes united via inheritance relationships".

Sunday, 27 August 2017

Unified Process

Unified Process is one of the most important software industry patterns as of late. This software process was spearheaded by 3 experts in object-oriented analysis in the 1990's: Jacbson, Booch and Rumbaugh). This is the first ever model to be designed after the UML notation. It started to find wide acceptation as a best practice for market ROI. Among the UP features one could quote:
-Clear and precise instructions;
-promotes accountability;
-activities that stress out input and output artefacts
-defines the dependency relationships among activities;
-comprises a well understood life cycle model;
-emphasises the use of the right procedures with the available resources;
-strong correlation with UML.

As a framework, UP is easily adapted to a variety of processes, encompassing the needs of different businesses. Its main features are:

1- Use case-driven- This is process understood from the user's viewpoint, without touching on implementation details. This means a comprehensive collection of all functional requirements that the proposed system has to include. Non-functional requirements might be noted along matching use cases, while extra requirements are kept in a different document.

2- Archiecture-centred - This implies gathering the requirements collected during the use cases and think of them as classes organised in components with defined roles within a system. Archiecture might be thought of as the information structure as well as the likely operations of said system. The system architecture starts with the user's viewpoints through use cases influenced by implementation factors.

3- Incremental iterations - At each iteration, relevant use cases are analysed according to the chosen architecture. The artefact resulting at the end of every iteration is a system module or an executable version.  The next stage of the iteration involves the next system component to be implemented provided that the current one meets the user's expectations.

4- focus on risk- This means that the most critical use cases are dealt with early in order to solve the most difficult problems first. The highest risk requirements or use cases are usually the ones most likely to be unpredictable in their interaction with the remainder of the components. Thus, understanding them first emables is important to ensure tighter system cohesion.

UP stages

1- Inception: This stage seeks to establish a broad picture of the system. Here the main priorities are limited to requirements, conceptual models and high level use cases. A development plan is also drawn up at this point in order to anticipate the amount of resources needed into the proposed project. The use cases will be incorporated into iterative cycles. Tests and implementation might occur during this stage in case an early prototype is deemed necessary to avoid greater risks, but otherwise these are kept to a minimum.

2- elaboration- Use cases are expanded upon in order to plot a basic architectural model. This means that the use cases are given more details to decide which artifacts will serve as the input/output of the incoming iterations. The conceptual model is revised and gives rise to the logical and physical design of the intended system.

3- construction- With the basic system architecture established, the first release of the software product is the aim of this stage, which is almost entirely dedicated to coding and testing. At this point a basic should have been reached between managers and users about the intended system.

4- transition - The system is deployed to the user's work environment. Usually data transfer from the former system takes place along with the obligatory training course. Any discrepancy picked by the end users are reported to the developers so they can work on the necessary improvements. It's still possible for requirements and code to undergo some minor revisions.




Thursday, 17 August 2017

Linked List

Introduction to linked list.

A linked list is a data structure that looks a lot like a regular list, except that it's a sequence of nodes. Each node comprises of two parts: data field and data reference. The latter is what defines nodes in a linked list as they're needed to point to the next node in the sequence. Without the data reference, the elements of a linked list wouldn't be bound at all; they'd be only loose entities without any connecting feature to relate them. A head pointer is used to track the first element in the linked list, always pointing to it.

The linked list data structure is tops for insertion or removal at any position in the list. However finding elements according to some specified criterium is made more difficult when compared to other compound data structures such as arrays and lists because it requires going through the whole list in order to find the desired item.

We can model a node of the linked list using a structure as follows:

typedef struct node{
    int data;
    struct node* next;
}

It should be noted that a linked list element is basically a struct, an object-esque entity in C which shares some similarities with a bona fide object from OO programming. For instance, a struct can store other values using common data types such as ints and chars, which can be referred to later on down the project.  Also, notice how data stores information while the next pointer holds the address of the next node.


First we declare a head pointer that always points to the first node of the list.

To add a node at the beginning of list we need to create a new node. We will need to create a new node each time we want to insert a new node into the list so we can develop a function that creates a new node and return it.

node* create(int data,node* next)
{
    node* new_node = (node*)malloc(sizeof(node));
    if(new_node == NULL)
    {
        printf("Error creating a new node.\n");
        exit(0);
    }
    new_node->data = data;
    new_node->next = next;

    return new_node;
}

Then we need to point the next pointer of the new node to the head pointer and point the head pointer to the new node.

node* prepend(node* head,int data)
{
    node* new_node = create(data,head);
    head = new_node;
    return head;
}

TRaversing the linked list

To traverse the linked list, we start from node 1, and move to the next node until we reach a NULL pointer.


typedef void (*callback)(node* data);
The following is the traverse() function:

void traverse(node* head,callback f)
{
    node* cursor = head;
    while(cursor != NULL)
    {
        f(cursor);
        cursor = cursor->next;
    }
}